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PRINCIPLES OF LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY

Forest and Wildlife Ecology 565
Spring 2009
(cross-listed with Zoology, Landscape Architecture)

Course readings
(Optional readings in italics)

The texts for the course are:

Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice, M. Turner, R. Gardner, & R. O誰eill; Springer-Verlag 2001.  (TGO)

Learning Landscape Ecology, S. Gergel & M. Turner, eds; Springer, 2003. Lab manual.

Foundation Papers in Landscape Ecology, J. Wiens, M. Moss, M. Turner, D. Mladenoff, eds; Columbia, 2006. (WMTM) (Recommended)

Weekly readings  (Optional readings in italics)

January
 

Week 1
Tues Jan 20  Introduction

Turner, Gardner, and O'Neill. Chapter 1

Wiens, Moss, Turner, and Mladenoff (WMTM) Intro pp. 1-10. (PDF)

Forman, R. T. T. and M. Godron. 1981. Patches and structural components for a landscape ecology. BioScience 31: 733-740. (In WMTM.) 

 

Thurs Jan 22  Concepts

Turner, M. G.  2005.  Landscape ecology: what is the state of the science?  Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 36:319-344. (PDF)

Turner, Gardner, and O'Neill. Chapter 2

Urban, D. L., R. V. O'Neill, and H. H. Shugart. 1987. Landscape ecology. BioScience 37: 119-127 (In WMTM).

 

Week 2

Tues Jan 27  Broad-scale causes

Turner, Gardner, and O'Neill. Chapter 4

Swanson, F. J., T. K. Kratz, N. Caine, and R. G. Woodmansee. 1988. Landform effects on ecosystem patterns and processes. BioScience 38: 92-98. (PDF)

Kramer MG, Hansen AJ, Taper ML, Kissinger EJ. 2001. Abiotic controls on long-term windthrow disturbance and temperate rain forest dynamics in southeast Alaska. Ecology 82:2749-68. (PDF)

 

Thurs Jan 29  GIS

*Bernhardsen, T. 1999. Geographic Information Systems: An Introduction. John Wiley and Sons. Chapter 1, Geographical information systems and geographical data (PDF 0.9 mb), and Chapter 3, From real world to GIS  (PDF 0.4 mb).

*Burrough P. A. and R. A. McDonnell. 1998. Principles of Geographic Information Systems. Oxford University Press. Chapter 9, Errors and quality control, pp. 220-240.  note: this chapter is available in two forms:
     complete with text boxes  (PDF 2.9 mb)
     text boxes missing on pages 223, 228,  230 23...  (PDF 0.3 mb)

Turner, Gardner, and O'Neill. Chapter 5, pp 93-125 only.

Mladenoff, D.J., M.A. White, J. Pastor, and T.R. Crow. 1993. Comparing spatial pattern in unaltered old-growth and disturbed forest landscapes. Ecological Applications 3:293-305.  (PDF 1.5 mb)

Wagner, H.H., and M.J. Fortin.  2005.  Spatial analysis of landscapes:  concepts and statistics.  Ecology 86(8): 1975-1987. (PDF)

 

February

 

Week 3

Tues Feb 03  Remote sensing

*Fassnacht KS, Cohen WB, Spies TA.  Key issues in making and using satellite-based maps in ecology: A primer.  Forest Ecology and Management 222 (1-3): 167-181 FEB 15 2006. (PDF)

Groom G, Mucher CA, Ihse M, et al. Remote sensing in landscape ecology: experiences and perspectives in a European context.  Landscape Ecology 21 (3): 391-408 APR 2006. (PDF)

Cohen WB, Goward SN.  Landsat's role in ecological applications of remote sensing. Bioscience 54 (6): 535-545 JUN 2004. (PDF)

 

Thurs. Feb 05  Discussion Session I 

 

Week 4

Tues. Feb 10  Land Use

Ellis, E. C., and N. Ramankutty, 2008. Putting people in the map: anthropogenic biomes of the world, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6, 439-447. (PDF 5.1 MB)

Foley, J.A., R. DeFries, G.P. Asner, C. Barford, G. Bonan, S.R. Carpenter, F.S. Chapin, M.T. Coe, G.C. Daily, H.K. Gibbs, J.H. Helkowski, T. Holloway, E.A. Howard, C.J. Kucharik, C. Monfreda, J.A. Patz, I.C. Prentice, N. Ramankutty, and P.K. Snyder, 2005. Global Consequences of Land Use, Science, 309, 570-574. (PDF 0.4 MB)

Schulte, L. A., D. J. Mladenoff, T. R. Crow, Laura C. Merrick, and D. T. Cleland. 2007. Homogenization of northern U.S. Great Lakes forests due to land use. Landscape Ecology 22:1089-1103. (PDF 0.4 MB)

Land Change Science Special Feature-- Six papers: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS) Dec 2007. (PDF 2 MB)

Brown, D. G., K. M. Johnson, T. R. Loveland and D. M. Theobald. 2005. Rural land-use trends in the conterminous United States, 1950-2000. Ecological Applications 15:1851-1863. (PDF 0.4 MB)

Grau, H. Ricardo; T. Mitchell Aide; Jess K. Zimmerman; John R. Thomlinson; Eileen Helmer; Xioming Zou . The Ecological Consequences of Socioeconomic and Land-Use Changes in Postagriculture Puerto Rico Bioscience 53:1159-1168. (PDF 0.6 MB)
 

Thurs. Feb 12  Social factors

Radeloff, V. C., R. B. Hammer, and S. I. Stewart. 2005. Sprawl and forest fragmentation in the U.S. Midwest from 1940 to 2000. Conservation Biology 19: 793-805. (PDF 0.7 Mb)

Radeloff, V. C., R. B. Hammer, S. I Stewart, J. S. Fried, S. S. Holcomb, and J. F. McKeefry. 2005. The Wildland Urban Interface in the United States. Ecological Applications 15:799-805. (PDF 0.3 Mb)

Hammer, R. B. S. I. Stewart, R. Winkler, V. C. Radeloff, and P. R. Voss. 2004. Characterizing spatial and temporal residential density patterns across the U.S. Midwest, 1940-1990. Landscape and Urban Planning 69: 183-199. (PDF 1.2 Mb)

 

Week 5

Tues. Feb 17 Laboratory 1

 

Thurs. Feb 19   Biodiversity I: Population models and Landscapes

Turner, Gardner, and O誰eill Chapter 8

Franklin, J. F., and D. B. Lindenmayer. 2009. Importance of matrix habitats in maintaining biological diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:349-350. (PDF)

 

Week 6

Tues Feb 24  Biodiversity II: Landscape structure 

Murphy, H.T. and J. Lovett-Doust. 2004. Context and connectivity in plant metapopulations and landscape mosaics: does the matrix matter? Oikos 105:3-14. (PDF)

Fahrig, L.  2003.  Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity.  Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 34:487-515. (PDF)

In WMTM:

Lefkovitch and Fahrig 1985.

Wegner and Merriam 1979.

Opdam, Rijsdijk, and Hustings 1985.

Pulliam 1988.

Wiens 1976.

 

Thurs Feb 26 Conservation Biology III: Biodiversity and landscape management

Schmiegelow, F.K., C.S. Machtans and S.J. Hannon. 2009. Are boreal birds resilient to forest fragmentation? An experimental study of short-term community responses. Ecology 78: 1914-1932. (PDF)

Gillies, C.S. and C.C. St. Clair. 2008. Riparian corridors enhance movement of a forest specialist bird in fragmented tropical forest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 19774-19779. (PDF)

Orrock, J.L. and E.I. Damschen. 2005. Corridors cause differential seed predation. Ecological Applications 15: 793-798. (PDF)

 

March

 

Week 7

Tues Mar 03

Discussion Session II--- no readings

 

Thurs Mar 05 

Lab I Presentations--- no readings

 

Week 8

Tues Mar 10  Models in Landscape Ecology I

Turner, Gardner & O誰eill Chapter 3

Scheller, R.M. and D.J. Mladenoff. 2007. An ecological classification of forest landscape simulation models: Tools and strategies for understanding large-scale forested ecosystems. Landscape Ecology  22: 491-505. (PDF)

Turner, Gardner & O誰eill Chapter 6

 

Thurs Mar 12  Disturbance and Succession

Turner, Gardner & O誰eill Chapter 7 

Perry, G. L. W.  2002.  Landscapes, space and equilibrium:  shifting viewpoints.  Progress in Physical Geography 26(3):339-359. (PDF)

Schoennagel, T., T.T. Veblen, W.H. Romme. 2004. The interaction of fire, fuels and climate across Rocky Mountain forests. BioScience 54(7): 661-676. (PDF)

Schulte, L.A., and D.J. Mladenoff. 2005. Severe wind and fire regimes in northern forests: Historical variability at the regional scale. Ecology 86:431-445. (PDF)

 

Tues Mar 17

Spring Break

 

Thurs Mar 19

Spring Break

 

Week 10

Tues March 24  Laboratory II: Quantifying landscape fragmentation with IAN

Gustafson, E. J. 1998. Quantifying landscape spatial pattern: What is the state of the art? Ecosystems 1: 143-156. (PDF)

Lab II Handout and Images

Link for Ian Ruby software install.  http://landscape.forest.wisc.edu/projects/ian/

 

Thurs March 26 Paleo-landscapes

Davis, M.B., R.R. Calcote, S. Sugita, H. Takahara. 1998. Patchy invasion and the origin of a hemlock-hardwoods forest mosaic. Ecology 79: 2641-2659. (PDF)

Brubaker, L.B. 1975. Postglacial forest patterns associated with till and outwash in northcentral Upper Michigan. Quarternary Research 5: 499-527. (PDF)

Graumlich, L.J. and M.B. Davis. 1993. Holocene variation in spatial scales of vegetation pattern in the upper Great Lakes. Ecology 74: 826-839. (PDF)

Hotchkiss, S.C., R.R. Calcote, and E.A. Lynch. 2007. Response of vegetation and fire to Little Ice Age climate change : regional continuity and landscape heterogeneity. Lanscape Ecology 22: 25-41. (PDF)

Umbanhowar Jr., C.E. and M. J. McGrath. 1998. Experimental production and analysis of microscopic charcoal from wood, leaves, and grass. The Holocene 8:  341-346. (PDF)

 

Week 11

Tues March 31 Micro landscapes

Wiens, J. A., and B. T. Milne. 1989. Scaling of 'landscape' in landscape
ecology, or, landscape ecology from a beetle's perspective. Landscape
Ecology 3:87-96. (PDF)

Scheller, R. M., and D. J. Mladenoff. 2002. Understory species patterns and
diversity in old-growth and managed northern hardwood forests.
Ecological Applications 12:1329-1343. (PDF)

Miller, T. F., D. J. Mladenoff, and M. K. Clayton. 2002. Old-growth northern
hardwood forests: Spatial autocorrelation and patterns of understory
vegetation. Ecological Monographs 72:487-503. (PDF)

Fraterrigo, J. M., M. G. Turner, and S. M. Pearson. 2006. Interactions
between past land use, life-history traits and understory spatial
heterogeneity. Landscape Ecology 21:777-790. (PDF)

 

April

 

Thurs April 2 Exotic species and landscapes

Theoharides, K.A. and J.S. Dukes. 2007. Plant invasion across space and time: factors affecting nonindigenous species success during four stages of invasion. New Phytologist 176: 256-273. (PDF)

Predick, K.I. and M.G. Turner. 2008. Landscape configuration and flood frequency influence invasive shrubs in floodplain forests of the Wisconsin River (USA). Journal of Ecology 96: 91-102. (PDF)

Duguay, S., F. Eigenbrod, and L. Fahrig. 2007. Effects of surrounding urbanization on non-native flora in small forest patches. Landscape Ecology 22: 589599. (PDF)

Deckers, B., K. Verheyen, M. Hermy and B. Muys. 2005. Effects of landscape structure on the invasive spread of black cherry Prunus serotina in an agricultural landscape in Flanders, Belgium. Ecography 28: 99 - 109. (PDF)

Dukes, J.S. and H.A. Mooney. 1999. Does global change increase the success of biological invaders? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 135-139. (PDF)

 

Week 12

Tues April 7 Lab II presentations

 

Thurs April 9 Conservation biology IV: Organisms at broad scales

Note: Be sure to have read the first two papers below before class this Thurs. The lecture will be a current update with new work, and it is important that you have read these first, for the methods and original results.
 

Required:

Mladenoff, D.J., T.A. Sickley, R.G. Haight, and A.P. Wydeven. 1995. A regional landscape analysis and prediction of favorable gray wolf habitat in the northern great lakes region. Conservation Biology 9:279-294. (PDF)

Mladenoff, D.J., T.A. Sickley, and A.P. Wydeven. 1999. Predicting gray wolf landscape recolonization: logistic regression models vs. new field data. Ecological Applications 9:37-44. (PDF)

A nice, recent (last month) overview article that appeared in the CALS Grow research magazine on the current situation with wolves in Wisconsin. (link)

Also at the Grow web site, a short piece and the new analysis maps I will talk about. (link)

 

Recommended:

If you are particularly interested in this topic, the 1998 paper applies the same approach to the NW US. The 1997 paper, frames the work in a larger conservation context, and adds a landscape estimate of potential wolf numbers on the landscape using two approaches, one being prey density.

 

Mladenoff, D.J. and T.A. Sickley 1998. Assessing potential gray wolf habitat restoration in the northeastern United States: a spatial prediction of favorable habitat and potential population levels. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:1-10. (PDF)

Mladenoff, D.J., R.G. Haight, T.A. Sickley, and A.P. Wydeven. 1997. Causes and implications of species restoration in altered ecosystems. BioSience 47:21-31. (PDF)

 

Week 13

Tues April 14 Forest disturbance: Insect defoliation

Cooke, B. J., V. G. Nealis, and J. Regniere. 2006. Insect Defoliators as Periodic Disturbances in Northern Forest Ecosystems./in/ E. A. Johnson and K. Miyanishi, editors. Plant Disturbance Ecology: The Process and The Response. Academic Press. Pages: 487-507 (not the whole chapter). (PDF)

Hunter, A. F., and J. S. Elkinton. 2000. Effects of synchrony with host plant on populations of a spring-feeding Lepidopteran. Ecology 81:1248-1261. (PDF)

Roland, J., and P. D. Taylor. 1997. Insect parasitoid species respond to forest structure at different spatial scales. Nature 386:710-713. (PDF)
 

Thurs April 16 Global change and landscapes

Wayburn, L.A.,  J.F. Franklin, J.C. Gordon, C.S. Binkley, D.J. Mladenoff, N.L. Christensen, Jr. 2007. Forest Carbon in the United States: Opportunities & Options for Private Lands. Pacific Forest Trust, Santa Rosa, CA, USA. (PDF)

Solomon, S., G. Plattner, R. Knutti, and P. Friedlingstein. 2009. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 1704-1709. (PDF)

Advantages of biodiesel over ethanol as a fuel source. (Summary of Hill et al. 2006) in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103: 1109911100. (PDF)

 

Week 14

Tues April 21 Historical landscape ecology

Rhemtulla, J.M., D.J. Mladenoff and M.K. Clayton. 2009.  Historical forest baselines reveal potential for continued carbon sequestration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 6082-6087. (PDF)

Scheller, R.M. and D.J. Mladenoff. 2008. Simulated effects of climate change, fragmentation and inter-specific competition on tree species migraion in northern Wisconsin, USA. Climate Reserach 36: 191-202. (PDF)

 

Thurs April 23 Landscape Models II

Syphard, A.D., K.C. Clark and J. Franklin. 2006. Simulating fire frequency and urban growth in southern California coastal shrublands, USA. Landscape Ecology 22: 431-445. (PDF)

Couclelis, H. 2005. 展here has the future gone? Rethinking the role of integrated land use models in spatial planning. Environment and Planning A 37: 1353 - 1371.

Scheller, R.M., D.J. Mladenoff, T.R. Crow., and T.A. Sickley.  2005.  Simulating the effects of fire reintroduction versus continued fire absence on forest composition and landscape structure in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, northern Minnesota, USA.  Ecosystems 8: 396-411. (PDF)

VDDT Link:  Forest Service Report (an interesting comparison of forest landscape change models commonly used by managers)

 

Week 15

Tues April 28 Land/water interactions

Bosch, J.M. and J.D. Hewlett. 1982. A review of catchment experiments to determine the effect of vegetation changes on water yield and evapotranspiration. Journal of Hydrology 55: 3-23. (PDF)

Galloway, J.N., J.D. Aber, J.W. Wrisman, S.P. Seitzinger, R.W. Howarth, E.B. Cowling and B.J. Cosby. 2003. The nitrogen cascade. Bioscience 53: 341-356. (PDF)

Lovett, GM; Weathers, KC; Sobczak, WV. 2000. Nitrogen saturation and retention in forested watersheds of the Catskill Mountains, New York. Ecological Applications 10: 73-84. (PDF)

Vitousek, PM; Aber, JD; Howarth, RW; Likens, GE; Matson, PA; Schindler, DW; Schlesinger, WH; Tilman, DG. 1997. Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: Sources and consequences. Ecological Applications 7: 737-750. (PDF)

Sahin, V. and M.J. Hall. 1996. The effects of afforestation and deforestation on water yields. Journal of Hydrology 178: 293-309. (PDF)

Hornbeck, J.W. and W.T. Swank. 1992. Watershed ecosytem analysis as a basis for mulitple-use management of eastern forests. Ecological Applications 2: 238-247. (PDF)

 

Thurs April 30 Exam

 

May

 

Week 16

Tues  May 5 Landscape management

Hummel, S., G.H. Donovan, T.A. Spies and M.A. Hemstrom. 2009. Conserving biodeversity using risk management: hoax or hope? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7: 103-109. (PDF)

Armitage, D.R., R. Plummer, F. Berkes, R.I. Arthur, A.T. Charles, I.J. Davidson-Hunt, A.P. Diduck, N.C. Doubleday, D.S. Johnson, M. Marschke, P. McConney, E.W. Pinkerton and E.K. Wollenberg. 2009. Adaptive co-management for social-ecological compelxity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7: 95-102.(PDF)

Holling, C. S, and G. K. Meffe. 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10: 328-337. (PDF)

Ludwig, D., R. Hillborn, C. Walters. 1993. Uncertainty, resource exploitation, and conservation: Lessons from history. Science 260: 17-19. (PDF)

Ostrom, E., J. Burger, C. B. Field, R. B. Norgaard, and D. Policansky. 1999. Revisiting the commons: Local lessons, global challenges. Science 284: 278-282. (PDF)

 

Thurs May 7 Discussion session III

 

 

 

 

 

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